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Endocrine Diagnosis of Infertility in the Stallion

Posted by Dr. Ed Squires on Thu, Apr 12, 2018 @ 08:05 PM

Diagnosis of infertility in stallions usually starts with a complete reproductive history and then collection of semen to evaluate seminal parameters, testis size and the potential presence of bacteria in the semen. A more detailed evaluation might also include drawing blood for hormonal analysis.

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Tags: Stallion Management

Measuring Hormone Levels in Mares

Posted by Dr. Ed Squires on Tue, Mar 06, 2018 @ 02:31 PM

Endocrine diagnostics certainly have a place in the routine management of mares and stallions as well as in diagnosis of problems and diseases. However, there are likely more applications for measuring hormones in mares than stallions. Dr. Ed Squires will discuss the hormones tested in mares in this article and will then cover the testing of stallion hormones in a subsequent article.

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Tags: Mare Management

Methods to Obtain the Concentration of Sperm in a Stallion Ejaculate

Posted by Erin Bishop on Tue, Feb 06, 2018 @ 01:02 PM

Methods to Obtain the Concentration of Sperm in A Stallion Ejaculate_NuceloCounter CassetteKnowing and keeping track of the concentration, or the number of sperm per milliliter, of each ejaculate for a stallion is very important for a variety of reasons. The concentration of his semen, along with the volume of his ejaculate, is used to determine the total number of sperm he produces in a given collection. These two numbers (volume and concentration) are used to calculate insemination doses. Also, keeping a record of each number can help stallion managers recognize if there are any changes in the reproductive health of the stallion. Slight variations are likely nothing to be concerned about. However, if the number of sperm in the ejaculate varies drastically, from collection to collection or a steady decrease in his total number of sperm over time, one may begin to ask what is causing the change. This information is valuable so that any concerns can be addressed as soon as they arise.

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Tags: Stallion Management

Care of the Newborn Foal

Posted by Dr. Dave Scofield on Wed, Jan 10, 2018 @ 01:04 PM

What transpires in the first 24 to 48 hours of a foal’s life is critical to his health and well-being from early life and up through weaning. As a foaling attendant there are several “milestones” to keep in mind as you watch the behavior of both the baby and the mare post-foaling. In this article we discuss the milestones they both should make within the few hours after the foal’s arrival into his new world. The care delivered, attention to detail, and respect for the nature of the horse will help set up your foal up for a healthier adolescence.

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Tags: Foal and Neonate Care

Management of Late Gestation Pregnancy Loss in the Mare

Posted by Dr. Ute Pansegrau on Wed, Dec 13, 2017 @ 11:16 AM

Breeding season in the northern hemisphere is over and hopefully all mares are in foal. Waiting for the arrival of the foals next year has begun. But what if something goes wrong? Abortion after day 45 of gestation occurs up to 3 to 15% in different horse populations. Infectious and non-infectious causes can be involved. It is important, that as long as the etiology of the pregnancy loss is undetermined, every abortion should be assumed as infectious until proven otherwise. How do you best handle the situation when a mare aborts and how do you prevent further damage to the mare or her fellow broodmares?

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Tags: Mare Management

The Major Causes of Damage to Sperm During Freezing…water and salts and ice, oh my!

Posted by Paul Loomis on Tue, Nov 14, 2017 @ 01:10 PM

I have always been fascinated by the exquisite design of biological systems. The more we humans understand about biology, the more we realize we don’t know. The process of mammalian fertilization is one of these complex biological systems that in nature requires the proper coordination of so many factors ranging from the behavior of male and female to biochemical changes at the cellular and molecular level. Defined as: “A process in sexual reproduction that involves the union of male (sperm) and female (ovum) gametes (each with a single, haploid set of chromosomes) to produce a diploid zygote”, fertilization requires that functionally viable sperm, at the right stage of maturity, are present in the oviduct of the mare during a brief window of time when a functionally viable oocyte is present.

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Tags: Frozen Semen

Trends in Equine Assisted Reproduction

Posted by Dr. Ed Squires on Mon, Oct 09, 2017 @ 09:31 AM

It has been almost 20 years since I started an assisted reproduction program at Colorado state University. The purpose of that program was to develop techniques to preserve equine genetics. It is beyond the scope of this article to discuss all the goals of that program but I would like to focus on production of foals from old mares and stallions via in vitro technology (aka test tube horse).

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Tags: Assisted Reproduction Techniques

Shuttle Stallions - Frozen Semen to the Rescue

Posted by Erin Bishop on Wed, Jul 05, 2017 @ 01:21 PM

Shuttle or Dual-Hemisphere Stallions are terms used to describe breeding stallions which travel between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for their respective breeding season. Several questions arise when discussing shuttle stallions and may include: Why do stallion owners incur the costs and risks of sending their stallions thousands of miles away? Does the lack of sexual rest affect their fertility? Is there a way to service mares in a different hemisphere without sending the stallion so many miles away?

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Tags: Frozen Semen, Stallion Management

Equine Seminal Plasma: The Good, The Bad and The Ugly

Posted by Paul Loomis on Mon, May 15, 2017 @ 01:21 PM

To understand why seminal plasma is beneficial in some situations and potentially harmful in others we must first review what it is, where it comes from and what we think are its roles in reproduction. The term seminal plasma refers to the fluid portion of ejaculated semen in which the spermatozoa are suspended. This fluid consists of secretions from the accessory sex glands in the stallion’s reproductive tract. These include the ampullae, the vesicular glands (seminal vesicles), the prostate gland and the bulbourethral glands (figure 1).

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Tags: Frozen Semen, Stallion Management, Mare Management, Breeding With Frozen Semen

Analysis of Frozen-Thawed Equine Semen

Posted by Julie Skaife on Thu, Apr 13, 2017 @ 09:36 AM

Once equine semen is frozen it is recommended that a post-thaw analysis be performed in order to ascertain the semen quality. There is variability in how well sperm from different stallions respond to the cellular stress of freezing and thawing. It is important to determine how well the sperm from a particular stallion withstood the stress of cryopreservation in order to make informed decisions regarding the management of their frozen semen inventory and breedings. Also, when we freeze a stallion for the first time we do a test freeze comparing several different protocols. We then use the post-thaw motility to select the freezing protocol for subsequent collections which gives the best post-thaw result. There are industry recommended minimums for commercial distribution of equine frozen semen and therefore it is pertinent to know if your stallion’s frozen semen would qualify. Consequently, the analysis of frozen-thawed semen is a valuable tool for the semen freezing lab, but also for the veterinarian receiving the semen. Your vet may base the breeding management of your mare upon the post-thaw quality of the semen. Also, many vets take a look at the motility of the frozen semen at the time of insemination, for future reference if there are concerns should the mare not check in foal.

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Tags: Frozen Semen, SBS Semen, Breeding With Frozen Semen